Laser Blood Irradiation
Photohemotherapy (therapy method by light irradiation of blood) is a group of quite effective methods of light therapy. It can be classified by physical parameters of light used for of irradiation (red or infrared laser light, blue light, ultraviolet light), by the way of irradiation (direct irradiation of blood inside of a vein intravenous, inside of artery intraarterial, extracorporeal in plastic or quartz irradiation chamber as well as indirect transcutaneous irradiation).Intravenous Laser Blood Irradiation Therapy
Transcutaneous Laser Blood Irradiation Therapy
Blue Light Blood Irradiation Therapy
There are several reports about positive outcomes of irradiation of blood with laser light for the therapy of different pathologies. Red laser light is usually applied for blood irradiation. Invasive and non-invasive methods of blood irradiation exist. Intravenous and extracorporeal blood irradiation are examples of invasive blood irradiation, wile transcutaneous blood irradiation is an example of non-invasive methods. Red LED light can also be used for blood irradiation.
The method intravenous laser blood irradiation (LBI) with red helium-neon (HeNe) laser was developed in experiment and introduced in clinic in 1981 by soviet scientists E.N. Meshalkin and V.S. Sergievskiy. Originally the method was applied in the treatment of cardiovascular pathologies. Some authors reported that the treatment possibilities of the method are very large and include the improvement of rheological characteristics of the blood and microcirculation, normalization of parameters of hormonal, immune, reproductive and many other systems.
HeNe laser (632.8 nm) or semiconductor laser diodes (633, 635 nm) are usually used to perform the intravenous laser blood irradiation (IV LBI). The best therapy results of IV LBI were obtained after using low power laser light with only 1-3 mW output power at the end of the light-guide inside a vein and with exposure of 20 - 60 minutes. Some laser therapy professionals recommend the use of 1 mW laser light for 20-30 min only. Procedures can be performed on a daily base or every second day, from 3 up to 10 sessions on a course of therapy.
It was shown, that IV HeNe LBI stimulates the immune response of the organism, activates erythrogenesis and improves deformability of erythrocyte membranes, has anti-hypoxic activity on tissues and general antitoxic influence on the organism at different pathological processes. IV LBI is used for its biostimulative, analgetic, antiallergic, immunocorrective, antitoxic, vasodilative, antiarrhythmic, antibacterial, antihypoxic, spasmolytic, anti-inflammatory and some other properties.
IV LBI activates nonspecific mechanisms of anti-infectious immunity. Intensifying of bactericidal activity of serum of the blood and system of the complement, reduction of the degree of C - reactive protein, level of middle molecules and toxicity of plasma, increasing the content of IgA, IgM and IgG in the serum of the blood, as well as decreasing of the level of circulating immune complexes are proved. There are studies on boosting effect of IV LBI on the cellular immunity (N. F. Gamaleya et al., 1991). Under influence of IV LBI the phagocytic activity of macrophages increases, concentration of microbes in exudate in the abdominal cavity of patients with peritonitis decreases, reduction of inflammatory exhibiting of disease, activation of microcirculation are detected.
The immunological effect of IV LBI can be explained by normalization of intercellular relationships within the subpopulation of T-lymphocytes and increasing the amount of immune cells in a blood. It increases the function activity of B-lymphocytes, strengthens the immune response, reduces the degree of intoxication and as a result improves the general condition of patients (V. S. Sergievskiy at al., 1991).
IV LBI promotes improving the rheological properties of blood, rising fluidity and activating transport functions. That is accompanied by increasing the oxygen level, as well as decreasing the carbon dioxide partial pressure. The arterio-venous difference by oxygen is enlarged, that testifies the liquidation of a tissue hypoxia and enrichment the oxygenation. It is a sign of normalization of tissue metabolism. Probably, the basis of activation of oxygen transport function of IV LBI is the influence on hemoglobin with transforming it in more favorable conformation state. The augmentation of oxygen level improves metabolism of the organism tissues. In addition, the laser irradiation activates the ATP synthesis and energy formation in cells (A. S. Krjuk et al., 1986). Application of IV LBI in a cardiology has shown that procedures have analgetic effect, show reliable rising tolerance of patients towards physical tolerance test, elongation of the period of remission.
It was proved that IV LBI reduces aggregation ability of thrombocytes, activates fibrinolysis, which results in peripheral blood flow velocity increasing and tissues oxygenation enriching. The improvement of microcirculation and utilization of oxygen in tissues as a result of IV LBI is intimately linked with positive influence on metabolism: higher level of oxidation of energy-carrying molecules of glucose, pyruvate, and other substances.
After IV LBI vasodilation and change in rheological properties of blood are revealed. IV LBI can also unblock the capillaries and collaterals, which then can improve supply of nutrients to tissue and improve the nerve cells function (N. N. Kapshidze et al., 1993).
IV LBI can increase the concentration of antibiotics and some other medications in the pocus of inflammation. It is known, that due to local edema blood circulation can be seriously disrupted in the areas of inflammation; for example, in kidneys. It was shown, that the concentration of antibiotics in healthy kidney is about 10 times higher, than in the inflamed kidney. Laser irradiation helps to increase concentration of the antibiotics in target areas. Similar studies showing favorable effect of blood irradiation for increasing concentration of administered antibiotics in inflamed prostate gland
Activation of microcirculation is one of the most pronounced effects of IV LBI. The improvement of microcirculation after IV LBI was detected in all structures of the central nervous system. This effect was the strongest in the highly developed vascular system hypothalamus. The capillaries of the hypothalamus are remarkable for high permeability for macro-molecular proteins. That can further amplify influence of the irradiated blood to subthalamic nuclei. It is assumed, that IV LBI can increase the functional activity of hypothalamus and all limbic system, which then can cause the activation of energetic, metabolism, immune and vegetative responses, mobilization of adaptive reserves of the organism. Top
In addition to the invasive method of intravenous laser blood irradiation (IV LBI) non-invasive transcutaneous laser blood irradiation (TLBI) is also available.
This non-invasive and relatively simple method of blood irradiation has been taken into use only after development of bright enough red and infrared lasers. It was shown that infrared radiation can go deep enough to reach vessels and irradiate blood. In addition, red laser light can also influence blood in superficial veins. Currently semiconductor laser diodes with red (630-670 nm) or near infrared (800-1300 nm) light emission are used to perform TLBI therapy.
Recent studies suggested that the medical effects of HeNe laser TLBI are similar or very close to the effects of HeNe laser IV LBI. It is believed, that the treatment results of 20 mW HeNe laser transcutaneous blood irradiation are similar to 1 mW HeNe laser intravenous blood irradiation. Laser light is delivered to the skin in the area of a large vein or artery through a special light-guide. Contact of the light-guide with the skin with some pressure can increase penetration of the light.
The biggest advantage of TLBI is that this method of blood irradiation is painless. Another important issue is that the need for intravenous injection is completely eliminated. This is why TLBI has the greatest advantage for the treatment of children. It can be also applied for the treatment of patients with small or difficult to find deep veins.
Unfortunately, not enough research exists to date directly comparing medical and biological effects of IV and transcutaneous LBI with each other. G. Brill (1994) suggested that the effects of the laser therapy depend on the method of irradiation. He considered, that the term «transcutaneous laser blood irradiation» is not quite correct, because it mentions only irradiation of blood and hides the irradiation of other nearby tissues, including all layers of skin, possibly acupuncture points, nerves, lymphatic glands and vessel, and even muscle and bone tissues. In case of IV LBI the main portion of the laser light is absorbed by blood, while in case of TLBI only minor part can reach blood. So, it is better not only to mention TLBI, but also to specify the exact area of irradiation. Top
Methods of laser and non-laser (incoherent, monochromic, narrow-band or broadband) light blood irradiation therapy are widely applied in the treatment of different pathologies. Ultraviolet light was the first light, successfully used for blood irradiation therapy. In the second half of the XX century laser blood irradiation was introduced. Recently it was shown that blue light irradiation of blood can also be successfully used in the therapy of different conditions.
It was discovered that several molecules in the blood have absorption spectra in blue region. It was proposed, that blue light can have positive effects in the therapy of different conditions.
H. Kost et al. (1986) offered to irradiate blood with incoherent narrow-band blue light for the treatment of patients with ischemic heart disease and hypertensive disease. The decrease of low-density lipoproteins and cholesterol amount in the blood serum was detected. Further studies showed that blue light blood irradiation has wide therapeutic activities.
V.I. Karandashov et al. (1996, 2000) studied the medical and biological actions of extracorporeal blue light irradiation in animal experiments and clinical trials. It was reported that viscosity of blood decreased immediately after the reinfusion of the blue light irradiated blood. It is important to mention, that the viscosity of the blood plasma also reduced, but to smaller degree than the viscosity of blood. It can improve the blood microcirculation, increase nutrients and oxygen supply to different tissues. It can also help in delivery of medication to the target tissues.
After blood irradiation the decrease of concentration of cholesterol, triglycerides, lipoproteins and glucose was also detected in patients with originally increased values. No signs for blood cell damage was obtained. The blue light blood irradiation therapy helped to keep the level of atherogenic lipids in the blood of patients with atherosclerosis relatively low for several months.
Blue blood irradiation had favorable results for patients with bronchial asthma. Patients reported improvement in heavy breathing. In addition to that positive influence of the activity of immune system was found. All the above mentioned results was detected after a single procedure of blood irradiation, and repeating treatments made results of therapy stronger.
L.V. Gasparyan (2000) reported about the experience of applying intravenous blue light blood irradiation for the therapy of different conditions, including hearing loss, atherosclerosis, and chronic inflammations of prostate gland. The results of the therapy are very encouraging. Blue light blood irradiation in general vas a better therapy tool then red laser intravenous blood irradiation in the given dosage and protocol.
As continuation of studies of effects of blue LED light irradiation effects on blood L.V. Gasparyan et al. (2003) examined effects of LED light irradiation of different wavelengths on blood platelets in vitro in animal experiments. It was reported, that blue and red light can significantly decrease aggregation activity of blood platelets. It was proposed, that increasing levels of NO can be results of light irradiation of blue and red band.
A.Makela (2004) discussed the biochemical background of positive influence of blue light in case of diabetes mellitus and some other conditions. She examined several molecules which can act as primary photoacceptors for blue light and some other molecules which can participate in blue light action.
Blue light blood irradiation therapy shows promising results in the treatment of different pathologies. In the near future the blue light blood irradiation will be used wider, than today, because equipment for non-invasive transcutaneous blue light blood irradiation is now available.